MAGE-A2 (157-166) – YLQLVFGIEV – Epitope of Melanoma Antigen Gene A2
MAGE-A2 (157-166) is an epitope of Melanoma Antigen Gene A2 and is one of the most Cancer-Testis Antigens (CTA) overexpressed in tumors of different histological types, such as prostate cancer. Type of MAGE-A expressed in tumors cells varies according to the type of tumor. The expression of MAGE-A2 causes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and decreases the chemosensitivity.
Applications of MAGE-A2 (157-166)
MAGE-A2 (157-166) is used to stimulate specific immune response, cytotoxic T cell response and to analyze the cytokine production in PBMCs by ELISPOT assay. In transgenic mouse, it has been demonstrated that MAGE-A2 (157-166) was capable of eliciting a CTL response presented by HLA-A*02:01 molecules. MAGE-A2 (157-166) has been reported to elicit CTL that could lyse tumor cell expressing both HLA-A*02:01 and MAGE-A2 by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with MAGE-A2 (157-166).
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1- Khalvandi A., Abolhasani M., Madjd Z., Sharifi L., Bakhshi P, Mohsenzadegan M. World J. Urol. (2020)
Reduced cytoplasmic expression of MAGE-A2 predicts tumor aggressiveness and survival: an immunohistochemical analysis
BACKGROUND: Melanoma antigen gene A2 (MAGE-A2) is one of the most cancer-testis antigens overexpressed in various types of cancers. Silencing the MAGE-A2 expression inhibited the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cells and increased the chemosensitivity. However, the expression pattern of MAGE-A2 in PCa tissue samples and its prognostic and therapeutic values for PCa patients is still unclear.
METHODS: In this study, for the first time, the staining pattern and clinical significance of MAGE-A2 were evaluated in 166 paraffin-embedded prostate tissues, including 148 cases of PCa and 18 cases of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HPIN), by immunohistochemical analysis.
RESULTS: The simultaneous expression of both nuclear and cytoplasmic patterns of MAGE-A2 with different staining intensities was observed among studied cases. Increased expression of MAGE-A2 was significantly found in PCa tissues compared to HPIN cases (P < 0.0001). Among PCa samples, the strong staining intensity of nuclear expression was predominantly observed in comparison with cytoplasmic expression in PCa tissues (P < 0.0001). A significant and inverse correlation was found between the cytoplasmic expression of MAGE-A2 and increased Gleason score (P = 0.002). Increased cytoplasmic expression of MAGE-A2 was associated with longer biochemical recurrence-free survival (BCR-FS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients (P = 0.002, P = 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, Gleason score and cytoplasmic expression of MAGE-A2 were independent predictors of the BCR-FS (P = 0.014; P = 0.028, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Taken together, cytoplasmic expression of MAGE-A2 was inversely proportional to the malignant grade and duration of recurrence of the disease in patients with PCa.
2- Kawashima AB. I., Hudson A. S. J., Tsai A. V., Southwood A. S., Takesako B. K., Appella C. E., Sette A. A., Celis A. E. Human Immunolgy 59(1):1-14 (1998)
The Multi-epitope Approach for Immunotherapy for Cancer: Identification of Several CTL Epitopes from Various Tumor-Associated Antigens Expressed on Solid Epithelial Tumors
One approach to development of specific cancer immunotherapy relies on the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAA). Induction of TAA-specific CTL could be used towards the eradication of established tumors, or to prevent their dissemination or recurrence after primary treatment. The present study identifies a set of CTL epitopes from TAA frequently found on solid epithelial tumors such as breast, lung and gastro-intestinal tumors. Specifically, HLA-A2.1 binding peptides from the MAGE2, MAGE3, HER-2/neu and CEA antigens were tested for their capacity to elicit in vitro anti-tumor CTL using lymphocytes from normal volunteers and autologous dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells. A total of 6 new epitopes (MAGE2, MAGE3, CEA, CEA, HER2 and HER2) were identified which were capable of specifically recognizing tumor cell lines expressing HLA-A2.1 and the corresponding TAA. In one case (CEA), induction of vigorous anti-tumor CTL responses required epitope engineering to increase HLA-A2.1 binding affinity. Finally, most of the newly identified epitopes (5 out of 6) were found to be highly crossreactive with other common HLA alleles of the A2 supertype (A2.2, A2.3, A2.6 and A6802), thus demonstrating their potential in providing broad and non-ethnically biased population coverage. The results are discussed in the context of the development of multi-epitope-based therapies with broad applicability for patients suffering from commonly found tumors.
3- Visseren M. J. et al. Int J Cancer. 73(1):125-130 (1997)
Identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes encoded by the tumor-specific MAGE-2 gene product
MAGE-2 is expressed in many tumors, including melanoma, laryngeal tumors, lung tumors and sarcomas, but not in healthy tissue, with the exception of testis. Thus, MAGE-2-derived peptides that bind to HLA class I molecules and elicit cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses could be of significant therapeutic importance. In this study, we show that several MAGE-2-derived peptides bind with high affinity to HLA-A*0201. Three of them form complexes with HLA-A*0201 that are stable at 37 degrees C and are immunogenic in HLA-A*0201Kb transgenic mice. Moreover, CTLs against 2 of them (M2 112-120, and M2 157-166) specifically recognize cells that express both the MAGE-2 protein and HLA-A*0201Kb. These 2 peptides are processed and presented in the context of HLA-A*0201. Therefore, these peptides are candidate components in peptide-based vaccines for the treatment and prevention of several types of MAGE-2-expressing cancers.
4- Chomez P., De Backer O., Bertrand M., De Plaen E., Boon T and Lucas S. Cancer Res. 61(14):5544-5551 (2001)
The first human members of the MAGE gene family that have been described are expressed in tumor cells but silent in normal adult tissues except in the male germ line. Hence, they encode strictly tumor-specific antigens that represent attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. However, other members of the family were recently found to be expressed in normal cells, indicating that the family is larger and more disparate than initially expected. We therefore performed a database screening to identify all of the recorded members of both classes of human MAGE genes. This report provides an overview of the MAGE family and proposes a general nomenclature for all of the MAGE genes identified thus far. We found that the MAGE-D genes were particularly well conserved between man and mouse, suggesting that they exert important functions. In addition, the genomic structure of the MAGE-D genes indicates that one of them corresponds to the founder member of the family, and that all of the other MAGE genes are retrogenes derived from that common ancestral gene. Intriguingly, the COOH-terminal domain of MAGE-D3 was found to be identical to trophinin, a previously described protein believed to be involved in embryo implantation.
5- Lurquin C. et al. J Exp Med. 201(2):249-257 (2005)
Contrasting frequencies of antitumor and anti-vaccine T cells in metastases of a melanoma patient vaccinated with a MAGE tumor antigen
Melanoma patients have high frequencies of T cells directed against antigens of their tumor. The frequency of these antitumor T cells in the blood is usually well above that of the anti-vaccine T cells observed after vaccination with tumor antigens. In a patient vaccinated with a MAGE-3 antigen presented by HLA-A1, we measured the frequencies of anti-vaccine and antitumor T cells in several metastases to evaluate their respective potential contribution to tumor rejection. The frequency of anti-MAGE-3.A1 T cells was 1.5 x 10(-5) of CD8 T cells in an invaded lymph node, sixfold higher than in the blood. An antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognizing a MAGE-C2 antigen showed a much higher enrichment with a frequency of approximately 10%, 1,000 times higher than its blood frequency. Several other antitumor T clonotypes had frequencies >1%. Similar findings were made on a regressing cutaneous metastasis. Thus, antitumor T cells were approximately 10,000 times more frequent than anti-vaccine T cells inside metastases, representing the majority of T cells present there. This suggests that the anti-vaccine CTLs are not the effectors that kill the bulk of the tumor cells, but that their interaction with the tumor generates conditions enabling the stimulation of large numbers of antitumor CTLs that proceed to destroy the tumor cells. Naive T cells appear to be stimulated in the course of this process as new antitumor clonotypes arise after vaccination.