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SB-PEPTIDE which belongs to the Smartox group is a French company specialized in peptide chemistry. The company offers various services including:

Peptide synthesis

 Peptide modifications

Synthesis of peptide libraries

Protein synthesis

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SB-PEPTIDE / Smartox are honored to have been cited in many and various scientific publications. Here are few examples  :

Madru, C., Henneke, G., Raia, P. et al. Nat Commun 11, 1591 (2020)
Structural basis for the increased processivity of D-family DNA polymerases in complex with PCNA



Replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs) have evolved the ability to copy the genome with high processivity and fidelity. In Eukarya and Archaea, the processivity of replicative DNAPs is greatly enhanced by its binding to the proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that encircles the DNA. We determined the cryo-EM structure of the DNA-bound PolD–PCNA complex from Pyrococcus abyssi at 3.77 Å. Using an integrative structural biology approach — combining cryo-EM, X-ray crystallography, protein–protein interaction measurements, and activity assays — we describe the molecular basis for the interaction and cooperativity between a replicative DNAP and PCNA. PolD recruits PCNA via a complex mechanism, which requires two different PIP-boxes. We infer that the second PIP-box, which is shared with the eukaryotic Polα replicative DNAP, plays a dual role in binding either PCNA or primase, and could be a master switch between an initiation and a processive phase during replication.

Dominguez-Berrocal, L., Cirri, E., Zhang, X. et al. Sci Rep 9, 4771 (2019)
New Therapeutic Approach for Targeting Hippo Signalling Pathway



Nuclear localization signals are short amino acid sequences that target proteins for nuclear import. In this manuscript, we have generated a chimeric tri-functional peptide composed of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), a nuclear localization sequence and an interfering peptide blocking the interaction between TEAD and YAP, two transcription factors involved in the Hippo signalling pathway, whose deregulation is related to several types of cancer. We have validated the cell penetration and nuclear localization by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy and shown that the new generated peptide displays an apoptotic effect in tumor cell lines thanks to the specific nuclear delivery of the cargo, which targets a protein/protein interaction in the nucleus. In addition, the peptide has an anti-tumoral effect in vivo in xenograft models of breast cancer. The chimeric peptide designed in the current study shows encouraging prospects for developing nuclear anti- neoplastic drugs.

Zewang You, Marc Behl, Stephan L. Grage, Jochen Bürck, Qian Zhao, Anne S. Ulrich, and Andreas Lendlein. Biomacromolecules (2020)
Shape-Memory Effect by Sequential Coupling of Functions over Different Length Scales in an Architectured Hydrogel



The integration of functions in materials in order to gain macroscopic effects in response to environmental changes is an ongoing challenge in material science. Here, functions on different hierarchical levels are sequentially linked to translate a pH-triggered conformational transition from the molecular to the macroscopic level to induce directed movements in hydrogels. When the pH is increased, lysine-rich peptide molecules change their conformation into a β-hairpin structure because of the reduced electrostatic repulsion among the deprotonated amino groups. Coupled to this conformation change is the capability of the β-hairpin motifs to subsequently assemble into aggregates acting as reversible cross-links, which are used as controlling units to fix a temporary macroscopic shape. A structural function implemented into the hydrogel by a microporous architecture-enabled nondisruptive deformation upon compression by buckling of pore walls and their elastic recovery. Coupled to this structural function is the capability of the porous material to enhance the diffusion of ions into the hydrogel and to keep the dimension of the macroscopic systems almost constant when the additional cross-links are formed or cleaved as it limits the dimensional change of the pore walls. Covalent cross-linking of the hydrogel into a polymer network acted as gear shift to ensure translation of the function on the molecular level to the macroscopic dimension. In this way, the information of a directed shape-shift can be programmed into the material by mechanical deformation and pH-dependent formation of temporary net points. The information could be read out by lowering the pH. The peptides reverted back into their original random coil conformation and the porous polymer network could recover from the previously applied elastic deformation. The level of multifunctionality of the hydrogels can be increased by implementation of additional orthogonal functions such as antimicrobicity by proper selection of multifunctional peptides, which could enable sophisticated biomedical devices.

Alarcon-Martinez, L., Yilmaz-Ozcan, S., Yemisci, M. et al. acta neuropathol commun 7, 134 (2019)
Retinal ischemia induces α-SMA-mediated capillary pericyte contraction coincident with perivascular glycogen depletion



Increasing evidence indicates that pericytes are vulnerable cells, playing pathophysiological roles in various neurodegenerative processes. Microvascular pericytes contract during cerebral and coronary ischemia and do not relax after re-opening of the occluded artery, causing incomplete reperfusion. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying ischemia-induced pericyte contraction, its delayed emergence, and whether it is pharmacologically reversible are unclear. Here, we investigate i) whether ischemia-induced pericyte contractions are mediated by alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), ii) the sources of calcium rise in ischemic pericytes, and iii) if peri-microvascular glycogen can support pericyte metabolism during ischemia. Thus, we examined pericyte contractility in response to retinal ischemia both in vivo, using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy and, ex vivo, using an unbiased stereological approach. We found that microvascular constrictions were associated with increased calcium in pericytes as detected by a genetically encoded calcium indicator (NG2-GCaMP6) or a fluoroprobe (Fluo-4). Knocking down α-SMA expression with RNA interference or fixing F-actin with phalloidin or calcium antagonist amlodipine prevented constrictions, suggesting that constrictions resulted from calcium- and α-SMA-mediated pericyte contractions. Carbenoxolone or a Cx43-selective peptide blocker also reduced calcium rise, consistent with involvement of gap junction-mediated mechanisms in addition to voltage-gated calcium channels. Pericyte calcium increase and capillary constrictions became significant after 1 h of ischemia and were coincident with depletion of peri-microvascular glycogen, suggesting that glucose derived from glycogen granules could support pericyte metabolism and delay ischemia-induced microvascular dysfunction. Indeed, capillary constrictions emerged earlier when glycogen breakdown was pharmacologically inhibited. Constrictions persisted despite recanalization but were reversible with pericyte-relaxant adenosine administered during recanalization. Our study demonstrates that retinal ischemia, a common cause of blindness, induces α-SMA- and calcium-mediated persistent pericyte contraction, which can be delayed by glucose driven from peri-microvascular glycogen. These findings clarify the contractile nature of capillary pericytes and identify a novel metabolic collaboration between peri-microvascular end-feet and pericytes.

Éric Pardoux et al. Talanta Volume 203 (2019)
Antimicrobial peptide arrays for wide spectrum sensing of pathogenic bacteria



Fast detection of bacteria in samples presumed to be un-contaminated, such as blood, is of great importance. Indeed, rapid diagnosis allows the set-up of appropriate antibiotic treatment. Besides clinical issues, there are many other domains, such as food processing or drug manufacturing, where the strict absence of any bacteria has to be assessed. Because the bacterial load found in most contaminated samples is often below the limit of detection for currently validated assays, a preliminary enrichment step is required to allow bacterial multiplication before proceeding to the analysis step, whatever it might be – cultural, immunological or molecular methods. In this study, we describe the use of a biosensor for single-step bacteria detection. The whole analysis is performed in less than 20 h, during the growth phase of the micro-organisms, using an array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) coupled with a surface plasmon resonance imager (SPRI). A wide range of bacterial strains are assayed, showing differentiated affinity patterns with the immobilized peptides, which are confirmed by multivariate analysis. This work establishes the evidence that antimicrobial peptides, mostly used so far in the antibiotic drug industry, are suited for the wide-spectrum detection of unknown bacteria in samples, even at very low initial loads. Moreover, the small set of AMPs that were assayed provided a specific affinity profile for each pathogen, as confirmed by multivariate analyses. Furthermore, this work opens up the possibility of applying this method in more complex and relevant samples such as foodstuff, urine or blood.

Lucie Vasseur et al. Toxicon: X Volume 2 (2019)
Fluorescent analogues of BeKm-1 with high and specific activity against the hERG channel



Peptidic toxins that target specifically mammalian channels and receptors can be found in the venom of animals. These toxins are rarely used directly as tools for biochemical experiments, and need to be modified via the attachment of chemical groups (e.g., radioactive or fluorescent moieties). Ideally, such modifications should maintain the toxin specificity and affinity for its target. With the goal of obtaining fluorescent derivatives of BeKm-1, a toxin from the scorpion species Buthus eupeus that selectively inhibits the voltage-gated potassium ion channel hERG, we produced four active analogues using a model of BeKm-1 docking to the outer mouth of the channel. In these BeKm-1 analogues, the natural peptide was linked to the fluorescent cyanine 5 (Cy5) probe via four different linkers at Arg1 or Arg/Lys27. All analogues retained their specificity towards the hERG channel in electrophysiological experiments but displayed a lesser affinity. These results validate our strategy for designing toxin analogues and demonstrate that different chemical groups can be attached to different residues of BeKm-1.

Xu H, Li T, Rohou A, et al. Cell. (2019)
Structural Basis of Nav1.7 Inhibition by a Gating-Modifier Spider Toxin



Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are targets of disease mutations, toxins, and therapeutic drugs. Despite recent advances, the structural basis of voltage sensing, electromechanical coupling, and toxin modulation remains ill-defined. Protoxin-II (ProTx2) from the Peruvian green velvet tarantula is an inhibitor cystine-knot peptide and selective antagonist of the human Nav1.7 channel. Here, we visualize ProTx2 in complex with voltage-sensor domain II (VSD2) from Nav1.7 using X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy. Membrane partitioning orients ProTx2 for unfettered access to VSD2, where ProTx2 interrogates distinct features of the Nav1.7 receptor site. ProTx2 positions two basic residues into the extracellular vestibule to antagonize S4 gating-charge movement through an electrostatic mechanism. ProTx2 has trapped activated and deactivated states of VSD2, revealing a remarkable ∼10 Å translation of the S4 helix, providing a structural framework for activation gating in voltage-gated ion channels. Finally, our results deliver key templates to design selective Nav channel antagonists.

Clairfeuille T, Cloake A, Infield DT, et al. Science. (2019)
Structural Basis of α-scorpion Toxin Action on Na v Channels



Fast inactivation of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels is essential for electrical signaling, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we determined the structures of a eukaryotic Nav channel alone and in complex with a lethal α-scorpion toxin, AaH2, by electron microscopy, both at 3.5-angstrom resolution. AaH2 wedges into voltage-sensing domain IV (VSD4) to impede fast activation by trapping a deactivated state in which gating charge interactions bridge to the acidic intracellular carboxyl-terminal domain. In the absence of AaH2, the S4 helix of VSD4 undergoes a ~13-angstrom translation to unlatch the intracellular fast-inactivation gating machinery. Highlighting the polypharmacology of α-scorpion toxins, AaH2 also targets an unanticipated receptor site on VSD1 and a pore glycan adjacent to VSD4. Overall, this work provides key insights into fast inactivation, electromechanical coupling, and pathogenic mutations in Nav channels.

Caroline Lambert et al. Journal of Virology May (2019)
An Immunodominant and Conserved B-Cell Epitope in the Envelope of Simian Foamy Virus Recognized by Humans Infected with Zoonotic Strains from Apes



Cross-species transmission of simian foamy viruses (SFVs) from nonhuman primates (NHPs) to humans is currently ongoing. These zoonotic retroviruses establish lifelong persistent infection in their human hosts. SFV are apparently nonpathogenic in vivo, with ubiquitous in vitro tropism. Here, we aimed to identify envelope B-cell epitopes that are recognized following a zoonotic SFV infection. We screened a library of 169 peptides covering the external portion of the envelope from the prototype foamy virus (SFVpsc_huHSRV.13) for recognition by samples from 52 Central African hunters (16 uninfected and 36 infected with chimpanzee, gorilla, or Cercopithecus SFV). We demonstrate the specific recognition of peptide N96-V110 located in the leader peptide, gp18LP. Forty-three variant peptides with truncations, alanine substitutions, or amino acid changes found in other SFV species were tested. We mapped the epitope between positions 98 and 108 and defined six amino acids essential for recognition. Most plasma samples from SFV-infected humans cross-reacted with sequences from apes and Old World monkey SFV species. The magnitude of binding to peptide N96-V110 was significantly higher for samples of individuals infected with a chimpanzee or gorilla SFV than those infected with a Cercopithecus SFV. In conclusion, we have been the first to define an immunodominant B-cell epitope recognized by humans following zoonotic SFV infection.

Maillot, N.J., Honoré, F.A., Byrne, D. et al. Commun Biol 2, 323 (2019)
Cold adaptation in the environmental bacterium Shewanella oneidensis is controlled by a J-domain co-chaperone protein network



DnaK (Hsp70) is a major ATP-dependent chaperone that functions with two co-chaperones, a J-domain protein (JDP) and a nucleotide exchange factor to maintain proteostasis in most organisms. Here, we show that the environmental bacterium Shewanella oneidensis possesses a previously uncharacterized short JDP, AtcJ, dedicated to cold adaptation and composed of a functional J-domain and a C-terminal extension of 21 amino acids. We showed that atcJ is the first gene of an operon encoding also AtcA, AtcB and AtcC, three proteins of unknown functions. Interestingly, we found that the absence of AtcJ, AtcB or AtcC leads to a dramatically reduced growth at low temperature. In addition, we demonstrated that AtcJ interacts via its C-terminal extension with AtcC, and that AtcC binds to AtcB. Therefore, we identified a previously uncharacterized protein network that involves the DnaK system with a dedicated JDP to allow bacteria to survive to cold environment.

Gonçalves TC, Benoit E, Kurz M, et al. Br J Pharmacol. (2019)
From identification to functional characterization of cyriotoxin-1a, an antinociceptive toxin from the spider Cyriopagopus schioedtei



Purpose: The NaV 1.7 channel is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia of the sensory nervous system and plays a central role in the pain signalling process. We investigated a library prepared from original venoms of 117 different animals to identify new selective inhibitors of this target.

Experimental approach: We used high throughput screening of a large venom collection using automated patch-clamp experiments on human voltage-gated sodium channel subtypes and then in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological experiments to characterize the active peptides that have been purified, sequenced, and chemically synthesized. Analgesic effects were evaluated in vivo in mice models.

Key results: We identified cyriotoxin-1a (CyrTx-1a), a novel peptide isolated from Cyriopagopus schioedtei spider venom, as a candidate for further characterization. This 33 amino acids toxin belongs to the inhibitor cystine knot structural family and inhibits hNaV 1.1-1.3 and 1.6-1.7 channels in the low nanomolar range, compared to the micromolar range for hNaV 1.4-1.5 and 1.8 channels. CyrTx-1a was 920 times more efficient at inhibiting tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive than TTX-resistant sodium currents recorded from adult mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons and in vivo electrophysiological experiments showed that CyrTx-1a was approximately 170 times less efficient than huwentoxin-IV at altering mouse skeletal neuromuscular excitability properties. CyrTx-1a exhibited an analgesic effect in mice by increasing reaction time in the hot-plate assay.

Conclusions and implications: The pharmacological profile of CyrTx-1a paves the way for further molecular engineering aimed to optimize the potential antinociceptive properties of this peptide.

Thébault, S., Agez, M., Chi, X. et al. Sci Rep 6, 19725 (2016)
TCTP contains a BH3-like domain, which instead of inhibiting, activates Bcl-xL



Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is anti-apoptotic, key in development and cancer, however without the typical Bcl2 family members’ structure. Here we report that TCTP contains a BH3-like domain and forms heterocomplexes with Bcl-xL. The crystal structure of a Bcl-xL deletion variant-TCTP11–31 complex reveals that TCTP refolds in a helical conformation upon binding the BH3-groove of Bcl-xL, although lacking the h1-subregion interaction. Experiments using in vitro-vivo reconstituted systems and TCTP+/− mice indicate that TCTP activates the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-xL, in contrast to all other BH3-proteins. Replacing the non-conserved h1 of TCTP by that of Bax drastically increases the affinity of this hybrid for Bcl-xL, modifying its biological properties. This work reveals a novel class of BH3-proteins potentiating the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-xL.

Meriem Chadli et al. Analyst ( 2018)
A new functional membrane protein microarray based on tethered phospholipid bilayers



A new prototype of a membrane protein biochip is presented in this article. This biochip was created by the combination of novel technologies of peptide-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (pep-tBLM) formation and solid support micropatterning. Pep-tBLMs integrating a membrane protein were obtained in the form of microarrays on a gold chip. The formation of the microspots was visualized in real-time by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and the functionality of a GPCR (CXCR4), reinserted locally into microwells, was assessed by ligand binding studies. In brief, to achieve micropatterning, P19-4H, a 4 histidine-possessing peptide spacer, was spotted inside microwells obtained on polystyrene-coated gold, and Ni-chelating proteoliposomes were injected into the reaction chamber. Proteoliposome binding to the peptide was based on metal–chelate interaction. The peptide-tethered lipid bilayer was finally obtained by addition of a fusogenic peptide (AH peptide) to promote proteoliposome fusion. The CXCR4 pep-tBLM microarray was characterized by surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) throughout the building-up process. This new generation of membrane protein biochip represents a promising method of developing a screening tool for drug discovery.

You, Z., Behl, M., Löwenberg, C., & Lendlein, A. MRS Advances (2017)
PH-sensitivity and Conformation Change of the N-terminal Methacrylated Peptide VK20



N-terminal methacrylation of peptide MAX1, which is capable of conformational changes by variation of the pH, results in a peptide, named VK20. Increasing the reactivity of this terminal group enables further coupling reactions or chemical modifications of the peptide. However, this end group functionalization may influence the ability of conformational changes of VK20, as well as its properties. In this paper, the influence of pH on the transition between random coil and ß-sheet conformation of VK20, including the transition kinetics, were investigated. At pH values of 9 and higher, the kinetics of ß-sheet formation increased for VK20, compared to MAX1. The self-assembly into ß-sheets recognized by the formation of a physically crosslinked gel was furthermore indicated by a significant increase of G’. An increase in pH (from 9 to 9.5) led to a faster gelation of the peptide VK20. Simultaneously, G’ was increased from 460 ± 70 Pa (at pH 9) to 1520 ± 180 Pa (at pH 9.5). At the nanoscale, the gel showed a highly interconnected fibrillary network structure with uniform fibril widths of approximately 3.4 ± 0.5 nm (N=30). The recovery of the peptide conformation back to random coil resulted in the dissolution of the gel, whereby the kinetics of the recovery depended on the pH. Conclusively, the ability of MAX1 to undergo conformational changes was not affected by N-terminal methacrylation whereas the kinetics of pH-sensitive ß-sheet formations has been increased.

Lauressergues, D., Couzigou, J., Clemente, H. et al. Nature 520, 90–93 (2015)
Primary transcripts of microRNAs encode regulatory peptides



MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules that inhibit the expression of specific target genes by binding to and cleaving their messenger RNAs or otherwise inhibiting their translation into proteins1. miRNAs are transcribed as much larger primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), the function of which is not fully understood. Here we show that plant pri-miRNAs contain short open reading frame sequences that encode regulatory peptides. The pri-miR171b of Medicago truncatula and the pri-miR165a of Arabidopsis thaliana produce peptides, which we term miPEP171b and miPEP165a, respectively, that enhance the accumulation of their corresponding mature miRNAs, resulting in downregulation of target genes involved in root development. The mechanism of miRNA-encoded peptide (miPEP) action involves increasing transcription of the pri-miRNA. Five other pri-miRNAs of A. thaliana and M. truncatula encode active miPEPs, suggesting that miPEPs are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. Synthetic miPEP171b and miPEP165a peptides applied to plants specifically trigger the accumulation of miR171b and miR165a, leading to reduction of lateral root development and stimulation of main root growth, respectively, suggesting that miPEPs might have agronomical applications.

Vétizou M, Pitt JM, Daillère R, et al. Science. (2015)
Anticancer immunotherapy by CTLA-4 blockade relies on the gut microbiota



Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice did not respond to CTLA blockade. This defect was overcome by gavage with B. fragilis, by immunization with B. fragilis polysaccharides, or by adoptive transfer of B. fragilis-specific T cells. Fecal microbial transplantation from humans to mice confirmed that treatment of melanoma patients with antibodies against CTLA-4 favored the outgrowth of B. fragilis with anticancer properties. This study reveals a key role for Bacteroidales in the immunostimulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade.

R. Soleri et al. Biosensors and Bioelectronics Volume 67, Pages 634-641 (2015)
Peptide conjugated chitosan foam as a novel approach for capture-purification and rapid detection of hapten – Example of ochratoxin A



A novel bioassay for the detection and monitoring of Ochratoxin A (OTA), a natural carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi, has been developed and applied for the screening of red wine. Here we report the immobilization and orientation of NOF4, a synthetic peptide, onto 3-D porous chitosan supports using a N-terminal histidine tag to allow binding to M++ ions that were previously adsorbed onto the high surface area biopolymer. Three divalent cations (M++=Zn++, Co++, Ni++) were evaluated and were found to adsorb via a Langmuir model and to have binding capacities in the order Zn++>Co++>Ni++. Following Zn++ saturation and washing, C-terminus vs. the N-terminus His-tagged NOF4 was evaluated. At 1000 µg L-1 OTA the N-terminus immobilization was more efficient (2.5 times) in the capture of OTA. HRP labeled OTA was added to the antigen solutions (standards or samples) and together competitively incubated on biospecific chitosan foam. The chemiluminescence substrate luminol was then added and after 5 min of enzymatic reaction, light emission signals (λmax=425 nm) were analyzed. Calibration curves of %B/B0 vs. OTA concentration in PBS showed that half-inhibition occurred at 1.17 µg L−1, allowing a range of discrimination of 0.25 and 25 µg L−1. In red wine, the minimum concentration of OTA that the system can detect was 0.5 µg L−1 and could detect up to 5 µg L−1. Assay validation was performed against immunoaffinity column (IAC) tandem reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC–FLD) and provided quite good agreement. The association of chitosan foam and specific peptide represents a new approach with potential for both purification–concentration and detection of small molecules. In the future this assay will be implemented in a solid-sate bioelectronic format.

Abir Tadmouri et al. EMBO J (2012)
Cacnb4 directly couples electrical activity to gene expression, a process defective in juvenile epilepsy



Calcium current through voltage‐gated calcium channels (VGCC) controls gene expression. Here, we describe a novel signalling pathway in which the VGCC Cacnb4 subunit directly couples neuronal excitability to transcription. Electrical activity induces Cacnb4 association to Ppp2r5d, a regulatory subunit of PP2A phosphatase, followed by (i) nuclear translocation of Cacnb4/Ppp2r5d/PP2A, (ii) association with the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene promoter through the nuclear transcription factor thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), and (iii) histone binding through association of Cacnb4 with HP1γ concomitantly with Ser10 histone H3 dephosphorylation by PP2A. This signalling cascade leads to TH gene repression by Cacnb4 and is controlled by the state of interaction between the SH3 and guanylate kinase (GK) modules of Cacnb4. The human R482X CACNB4 mutation, responsible for a form of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, prevents association with Ppp2r5 and nuclear targeting of the complex by altering Cacnb4 conformation. These findings demonstrate that an intact VGCC subunit acts as a repressor recruiting platform to control neuronal gene expression.